There are five elements in the halogens group: fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine.
Their name, “halogens”, means “salt-producing” and that’s because they produce salts when react with metals. Here you have the top 20 facts about halogens.
The halogen group contains elements that can take three (out of four) states of matter at standard conditions of temperature and pressure.
Halogens form acids when react with hydrogen.
Halogens are produced from mineral or salts.
Chlorine, bromine, and iodine are very good disinfectants.
Halogens are highly reactive and they can be dangerous to biological organisms.
Fluorine is the most reactive of the halogens; it reacts even with noble gases, which are considered inert and it also reacts with glass.
Fluorine is very corrosive and toxic gas.
Teflon, the highly thermal and chemical resistant material is fluorine reacted with carbon.
Fluorine reacts with water to form oxygen and hydrogen fluoride.
Halogens are soluble in water.
Fluorite (fluorine mineral) is produced in large quantities every year (6 million metric tones) and 400,000 metric tons of hydrofluoric acid.
Chlorine is mostly produced from the mineral halite.
Electrolysis of brine is the process for producing 40 million metric tons of chlorine each year.
50% of the bromine is produced in the USA (225,000 metric tons annually) but very little of the world production of iodine (22,000 metric tons of iodine per year worldwide) is made in the USA.
Chlorine and bromine are used as disinfectants.
Halogens are used in the production of halogen lamps.
There are 3 to 6 grams of fluorine, 95 grams of chlorine, 260 milligrams of bromine, and 10 to 20 milligrams of iodine in a 70 kg person.
Chlorine is found in human blood in a concentration of 0.3%.
Heavier halogens are less toxic than the lighter halogens.