There is no other substance on Earth that is more important than water. The simple fact that water is absolutely essential for life on Earth says everything about water. Chemical and physical properties of water are fascinating and these properties affects of lives and it is considered the spring of life. Below are the most interesting and important facts about water that everybody should know.
Water is made of two hydrogen atoms covalently bonded to one atom of oxygen.
Although 71% of Earth’s surface is covered by water, less than 1% of it is potable and accessible.
Seas and oceans contain 96.5% of all the Earth’s water, 1.7% is groundwater, 1.7% is glaciers and frozen water at the polls, and a very small fraction of Earth’s water is found in the air as vapor, clouds, and precipitation.
Frozen water (ice) floats because there is a lot of empty space between bonded molecules (its volume increases with 9%).
The highest density of water is at 3.98 centigrade.
Water increases its density as it is cooled until it reaches 3.98 centigrade; below this temperature water decreases in volume.
Virtual water is the water used in industry for production of different goods.
Water is essential to all life on Earth.
Water is one of the most efficient solvents.
Water is vital for world economy.
Agriculture uses 70% of the water used by humans.
Water can be found in nature in all tree common states of matter: solid, liquid, and gas.
Water is tasteless, colorless, and odorless; Water vapor is invisible as a gas.
Water absorbs infrared light.
Water has the tendency to move up a narrow tube against gravity force due to its capillary action (molecules of water have strong attractive forces).
Water has the highest surface tension of all common liquids which controls the drops formation and has a great importance in cell physiology.
All cell’s components (as proteins and DNA) are dissolved in water.
Water in nature is a good electrical conductor but pure water is not.
The boiling point of water depends of the pressure (100 centigrade at the sea level, 68 centigrade on Mount Everest, hundreds of centigrade at the bottom of the ocean).
Water controls Earth’s climate due to its specific heat capacity and its high heat of vaporization.
Water is miscible with many liquids which means it forms a single homogenous liquid when combined with many other liquids (but not with all because water is also immiscible, forming layers when combined with many other liquids).
Water is the end product of hydrogen’s combustion.
Water is the best thermostatic heat regulator due to the release of heat on freezing and absorption on melting.
Water transparency and the fact that it absorbs infrared and ultraviolet light make water very important for photosynthesis.
Water is a good sound transmitter allowing the use of sonar for so many important applications.
Water in the universe is produced mostly as a byproduct of star formation.
Hydrogen and oxygen, the two components of water are among the most abundant elements in the universe which leads to the conclusion that water is a common substance in the universe.
Water vapor was detected in the atmosphere of the Sun and all the planets of our solar system (and most of their moons).
Liquid water is believed to exist on Saturn’s moons Enceladus and Titan, and Jupiter’s moons Europa and Ganymede.
Water in ice form was detected on the Moon, Mars, Jupiter’s moons Europa and Ganymede, in the rings of Saturn and its moons Titan and Enceladus, on Pluto, on comets, and the celestial objects of Kuiper belt and Oort cloud.
Water is used as a scientific standard; temperature, volume, and mass standards are according to water properties.