Number of Energy Levels: 6
Electrons on the outer energy level: 1
Atomic number: 79
Atomic Mass: 196.966 Amu (Atomic Mass Units)
Density: 19.32 g/cm3
Classification: Transition Metal
Gold has been known since 3000 BC. Its name derives from the old English word "geolo" which means "yellow" and its symbol drives from the Latin word "aurum" which means "gold". Gold’s melting point is at 1064.43 °C (1337.5801 K, 1947.9741 °F) and its boiling point is at 2807.0 °C (3080.15 K, 5084.6 °F).
Top 30 interesting facts about Gold
Gold is a soft, ductile, and malleable transition metal.
Gold is the most malleable metal (one gram of gold can be beaten into one square meter sheet of gold); gold can be even beaten to become transparent.
Semi-transparent sheets of gold reflect yellow, red, and infrared light.
Gold is a bright yellow precious metal that is solid under standard conditions.
Gold is good conductor of heat and electricity.
Gold is denser than lead; one cubic meter of gold weights 19,300 kg.
Gold is one of the least reactive elements and it maintains properties when exposed to air or water.
Gold can occur naturally as a free element, as electrum (naturally occurring alloy of gold and silver), naturally occurring alloy with copper and palladium, and as gold tellurides (compound of gold and tellurium).
Gold is produced in supernovas.
Gold that is found in the Earth’s crust is believed to be delivered by asteroids about 4 billion years ago.
Gold is also found in sea water.
Gold doesn’t react with acids but it reacts with aqua regia.
Gold dissolves in mercury.
Gold forms alloys with other metals at high temperatures.
174,000 tones of gold were mined since the gold was known.
Gold has only one stable and naturally occurring isotope: 197-Au.
Gold is produced in China (the largest producer), Australia, the USA, Russia, and Peru (and small quantities in other countries).
Gold production is always associated with hazardous pollution, especially pollution with cyanide.
Gold is mainly used in jewelry industry, usually alloyed with other metals.
White gold (18k) contains 25% other metals (nickel (or palladium, or silver), zinc, and copper).
Gold is also use as an investment. It is stored in coins or bars.
10% of gold production is used in corrosion-free electrical connectors in electrical devices and computers.
Gold is used in glass industry to produce red-colored glass.
Gold (some gold salts) is used in pharmaceutical industry to produce medicines for the treatment of arthritis.
Gold alloys are used in dentistry for tooth restoration.
In food industry, the E number of gold is 175. Yes, gold is used in food.
In the past gold was used in coin production.
Gold was also used in producing ancient artifacts.
Pure metallic gold is neither toxic nor irritating when ingested but gold salts are.