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Name: Hafnium
Symbol: Hf
Number of Energy Levels: 6
Electrons on the outer energy level: 2
Atomic number: 72
Atomic Mass: 178.49 Amu (Atomic Mass Units)
Protons/Electrons: 72
Neutrons: 106
Density: 13.2 g/cm3
Classification: Transition Metal

Hafnium | Chemical elements

Hafnium was discovered in 1923 by Dirk Coster. Its name derives from the Latin word "Hafni" which is the ancient name of Copenhagen. Hafnium’s melting point is at 2150.0 °C (2423.15 K, 3902.0 °F) and its boiling point is at 5400.0 °C (5673.15 K, 9752.0 °F).

Top 14 interesting facts about Hafnium

  1. Hafnium is a silvery gray transition metal.
  2. Hafnium is shiny and ductile metal that is resistant to corrosion.
  3. Hafnium is not found freely in nature.
  4. Hafnium is very similar to zirconium and it is usually found in zirconium minerals (zircon).
  5. Separating hafnium from zirconium is one of the most difficult processes due to the similarities of these two elements.
  6. The major producers of hafnium are Brazil, Malawi, and Australia.
  7. Hafnium reacts with air forming a layer that prevents further corrosion.
  8. Hafnium can sometimes ignite spontaneously in air.
  9. There are 5 stable isotopes of hafnium: 176-Hf, 177-Hf, 178-Hf, 179-Hf, and 180-Hf.
  10. Hafnium is a byproduct of zirconium production (more than 50%).
  11. In the oxidation state of +4, hafnium forms mainly inorganic compounds.
  12. Hafnium is mainly used in control rods for nuclear reactors.
  13. Hafnium’s other uses are: in different alloys with other metals, in microprocessors, and as electrode in plasma cutting.
  14. Pure hafnium is not considered toxic but its compounds are.

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