Number of Energy Levels: 5
Electrons on the outer energy level: 1
Atomic number: 41
Atomic Mass: 92.96638 Amu (Atomic Mass Units)
Density: 8.57 g/cm3
Classification: Transition Metal
Niobium was discovered in 1801 by Charles Hatchet. Niobium was named after the name of the daughter of mythical king Tantalus, whose name was Niobe. Niobium’s melting point is at 2468.0 °C (2741.15 K, 4474.4 °F) and its boiling point is at 4927.0 °C (5200.15 K, 8900.6 °F).
Top 15 interesting facts about Niobium
Niobium was formerly called columbium and had the symbol Cb.
Niobium is soft and has a gray color.
Niobium is often found in pyrochlore and columbite minerals.
Niobium is the 33rd most common element in Earth’s crust.
Free element niobium does not occur in nature.
Niobium is mostly used in alloys, increasing the strength (steel used in gas pipelines and structural steel).
Other uses of niobium include: jet and rocket engines, superconducting materials and magnets, MRI scanners, welding, nuclear industry, electronics, optics, and few others.
At cryogenic temperature, niobium becomes superconductor.
Niobium has the largest magnetic penetration depth among all elements.
Niobium is corrosive resistant.
Niobium has a lower production price and is availability is greater than that of other similar elements.
More than 32 isotopes of niobium are known but only 93-Nb is stable.
Brazil and Canada are the largest producers of niobium due to the large deposits of pyrochlore mineral found in these two countries.
More than 60,000 tones of niobium is produced annually (85% of it is produced in Brazil).
Niobium has no biological role and it is considered harmless.